Scouring Process in Textile

Introduction: The pretreatment step in wet processing technology is called scouring. Therefore, it is the initial phase of pre-treatment. Textile fabrics made of natural fibers must undergo the scouring process before being dyed or printed. Without a doubt, the scouring step is crucial to wet processing.

What is Scouring?

Scouring is the process of washing out contaminants as thoroughly as possible, both naturally occurring (oil, wax, gum, fat, etc.) and introduced (during the fabrication process). This treatment eliminates the fabric fiber’s particularly hydrophobic characteristics.

Objectives of Scouring:

Scouring is a pre-treatment for textiles and textile fibers. Textiles that have been scoured are ideal for dyeing and printing. There are some significant goals of the scouring process. The scouring process has the following goals. It is they-

1. First and foremost, the main goal of scouring is to clean the textile materials of contaminants.

2. Second, the textile materials are kept in a highly absorbent state without considerably suffering from chemical or physical degradation.

3 . Above all, materials are now ready for the subsequent bleaching process after the scouring phase.

4. To eliminate non-cellulosic material when processing cotton.

5. To make a fabric or other textile material more absorbent without causing physical or chemical harm.

can greatly enhance the fabric’s hydrophilicity.

6. To add alkali to generate a clean substance.

7. To fully remove contaminants including oils, waxes, gum, and prepare the fabric for the following procedure.

Effects of Scouring;

  • The scouring procedure resulted in the following modifications:
  • First, soaps are made from free fatty acids and saponifiable oils.
  • In addition, pectic acid’s soluble salts are formed from pectose and pectin.
  • Thirdly, proteins hydrolyze into products of soluble breakdown.
  • Mineral stuff then disintegrates in the water.
  • After all, the soaps produced by saponification emulsify insoluble oils and waxes.
  • Last but not least, dust particles are removed and suspended.

I talked about the saponification process in the paragraph above. Therefore, saponification is the process through which insoluble and immiscible materials become products that are water-soluble. Following is the response:

Water + Glycerin + Caustic Soda + Oil = Soap

Method of Scouring Process:

There are two ways that the scouring process works. As follows:

  • Continues process: Scrubbing of the fabric is done continually in a J-Box during this process.  The pretreatment and dyeing operations run continuously for the following process in this machine. Though this kind of application only works in a very small number of situations.
  • Discontinuous process: Another name for this kind of procedure is the batch procedure. In this case, scouring is done intermittently in dyeing equipment called a Kier Boiler, Jigger, or Winch. Likewise, a different batch or lot is made prior to the dying procedure.

Scouring Process  in Continues Method (J-box):

Scouring Process Recipe:

The following are the common scouring process recipe. They are-

Caustic Soda = 0.5 to 3% on the weight of fabric (owf)

Sodium-bi-Carbonate = 0.5 to 1% owf

Wetting Agent = 0.5 to 1% owf

Materials: Liquor = 1: 6/8/10/12 (as required)

Temperature = 100 to 140 degree Celsius

Pressure = 10 to 30 PSI

Time = 60 to 90 minutes

Material forms = Rope or Open width

Scouring process in Discontinues Method (kier Boiler) :

Conclusion: Scouring is generally done for natural fiber. Better dyeing or printing performance depends on better scouring of the materials. Otherwise, different types of dyeing or printing faults are appearing on the face of the fabric. So, it needs to take care of the scouring process. It also depends on the shade of the fabric. Generally, it is important for light-shade dyeing. Lastly, the Scouring agent is supplied by different textile chemical manufacturing companies. Before using, the scouring agent one should ensure the properties of the scouring agent.

Written by:

Sadman Al Hasan
Campus Ambassador
Institute of Science Trade and Technology (ISTT)

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