Knit Fabric Faults List

Broken Ends, Holes, or Cracks:

  • Causes: Snagging, tearing, or machine malfunctions during production.
  • Remedies: Ensure proper handling and care during production to avoid damage.
  • Solution if it Occurs: Repair small holes with matching yarn or discard severely damaged

Patta (Creases/Folds):

  • Causes: Improper yarn tension, machine settings, or yarn feed.
  • Remedies: Adjust yarn tension, machine settings, or yarn feed to ensure uniformity.
  • Solution if it Occurs: Re-knit the affected section and make necessary adjustments.

Certainly, here’s a summary of the knit fabric defects you mentioned, along with their causes, remedies, and solutions if they occur:

Thick Thin (Irregular Thickness):

  • Causes: Uneven yarn tension, yarn quality variations, or machine issues.
  • Remedies: Maintain consistent yarn tension and check for machine problems.
  • Solution if it Occurs: Sort or grade the fabric, and consider using the defective areas for less critical applications.

Needle Mark:

  • Causes: Damaged or malfunctioning knitting needles.
  • Remedies: Inspect and maintain knitting needles regularly.
  • Solution if it Occurs: Repair or replace damaged needles, and re-knit the affected area if necessary.

Oil Spot:

  • Causes: Oil or lubricant contamination during manufacturing.
  • Remedies: Keep knitting machines and equipment clean and well-maintained.
  • Solution if it Occurs: Treat the oil spots with a suitable cleaning agent, and rewash the fabric if necessary.

Long Loop:

  • Causes: Inconsistent yarn tension, machine settings, or yarn feeding.
  • Remedies: Adjust the machine’s tension settings and ensure proper yarn feeding.
  • Solution if it Occurs: Re-knit the affected area, and monitor the machine for consistent tension.

Mini Loop:

  • Causes: Tension issues, improper yarn handling, or machine problems.
  • Remedies: Check and adjust the machine’s tension settings.
  • Solution if it Occurs: Re-knit the section with proper tension.

Set Off:

  • Causes: Inadequate drying or curing processes after dyeing.
  • Remedies: Ensure proper drying and curing processes.
  • Solution if it Occurs: Re-dye or correct the color transfer if possible, and take preventive measures in subsequent processing.

Certainly, here are the causes, remedies, and solutions for the knit fabric defects you mentioned:

Drop Stitch:

  • Causes:
    • The faulty setting of the yarn feeder.
    • Improper yarn feeder threading.
    • Defective take-up in the knitting process.
    • Very dry material.
    • Insufficient yarn tension.
  • Remedies:
    • Properly set the yarn feeder.
    • Maintain accurate yarn tension.
    • Ensure a fault-free take-up process during knitting.
    • Perfectly thread the yarn feeder.

Vertical Stripes:

  • Causes:
    • Heavily running needle.
    • Defective needle latch.
    • Defective needle hook.
    • Defective cylinder or dial.
    • Bent needles.
    • Damages on other knitting elements.
  • Remedies:
    • Use fault-free needle latch and needle hook in knitting.
    • Confirm defect-free dial or cylinder in the knitting machine.
    • Use damage-free elements in the knitting machine.

Horizontal Stripes:

  • Causes:
    • Improper setting of yarn feeder.
    • Variation in the yarn running-in tension.
    • Deflectors in dial cam brought into a tuck position.
    • Jerky impulse from fabric take-up.
    • Lack of constant couriering at all feeders.

Snagging or Snags:

  • Causes:
    • Snagging is often produced in knit fabric made from filament yarns.
    • Snagging can be decreased by using yarn with lower crimp elasticity, a coarser single filament count, and a higher twist.

Cloth Fall-Out:

  • Causes:
    • Cloth fall-out is an area consisting of drop stitches lying side by side.



  1. High Twist Yarn: Using yarn with a high twist level, especially in hosiery knitting, can lead to spirality as the yarn’s natural twist tendency affects the fabric’s behavior after washing.
  2. Uneven Fabric Tension: If the fabric’s tension is uneven during knitting or finishing processes, it can cause spirality when the garment is washed.
  3. Uneven Fabric Feeding: If the fabric is fed unevenly at various stages of finishing, such as the stenter, calender, or compactor machines, it can contribute to spirality.

Remedies and Solutions for Spirality:

  1. Use Recommended Yarns: Use yarns with twist levels suitable for the intended fabric type. For hosiery knitting, choose yarns with the recommended twist per meter (TPM) range.
  2. Maintain Uniform Tension: Ensure that the fabric’s tension remains consistent during the knitting process. Properly adjust the machine’s tension settings.
  3. Uniform Fabric Feeding: Ensure that the fabric is fed at a uniform rate at all stages of finishing, including the stenter, calender, and compactor machines. Uneven feeding can contribute to spirality.
  4. Alternating Twist: In some cases, alternating the twist direction (e.g., using “S” twist and “Z” twist yarns on alternate feeders) can help reduce spirality.
  5. Hosiery Yarn Selection: For hosiery knitting, use yarns with the recommended twist multiplier (TM), generally in the range of 3.5 to 3.8.
  6. Proper Fabric Handling: Handle the fabric with care during wet processing and finishing to minimize distortion.

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