What is GSM?

In textile, GSM stands for Grams per Square Meter. It is a standard unit of measurement used to express the weight or density of fabrics such as woven, non-woven, or knitted materials.

GSM is used to measure the weight of the fabric per unit area. For instance, a fabric with a GSM of 150 means that one square meter of that fabric weighs 150 grams.

The GSM of a fabric is an essential factor in determining its characteristics such as its strength, thickness, absorbency, and durability. Fabrics with higher GSM values are generally thicker, more absorbent, and more durable. Lower GSM fabrics are lighter and may be more suitable for applications where flexibility or breathability is more important than weight or strength.

GSM is commonly used in the textile industry to compare and select fabrics for various applications such as clothing, bedding, upholstery, and industrial textiles.

Why should we know about the GSM?

Knowing about GSM (Grams per Square Meter) in textiles is important for several reasons:

1. Fabric Selection: Understanding the GSM of a fabric can help in choosing the right fabric for a specific application. For example, a fabric with a high GSM may be suitable for making heavy-duty workwear, while a low GSM fabric may be better suited for lightweight summer clothing.

2. Quality Control: GSM is a standard unit of measurement used in the textile industry to ensure consistency in fabric weight and density. Manufacturers can use GSM measurements to check that the fabric meets the required specifications.

3. Pricing: The GSM of a fabric can impact its price. Higher GSM fabrics are generally more expensive due to the additional material and manufacturing costs required to produce them.

4. Production Planning: GSM can be used in production planning to estimate fabric consumption and production costs. Manufacturers can use GSM measurements to calculate the amount of fabric needed for a specific order and estimate the cost of production.

Fabric GSM Vs Fabric thickness

GSM is one of the primary fabric quality parameters. When you need to purchase a fabric or need to get the fabric development done, you must mention your fabric gsm requirement. The thickness of the fabric depends of the yarn thickness (yarn count), and density of the yarns in the woven fabric. Another way by using thicker yarns, fabric thickness can be increased. This will increase the fabric weight of unit surface area. Fabric fall, stiffness, texture, hand feel and shade depth effect by the fabric weight (GSM).

If you select a lower gsm fabric, you will get a lighter and thinner fabric. The openness of the fabric increases with the reduction of its gsm. We prefer the clothes made of lighter fabrics in the summer and in winter we prefer wearing clothes made of the thicker fabrics for warm. A sweatshirt, fleece jackets are made of higher gsm fabrics (200-300 gsm). So, if you are doing a project on making your own garment, you need to choose the gsm according to the end use of the garment.

After the washing of fabric or garment, fabric gsm increases due to shrinkage of the fabric length and width.

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