Basic of Fabric

Fabric refers to any material that is made by weaving or knitting fibers together. It can be made from a variety of fibers, including cotton, wool, silk, linen, and synthetic materials.

Some common characteristics of fabric include:

1. Durability: Fabric can be strong and durable, depending on the type of fiber and the weave or knit structure used.

2. Texture: The texture of fabric can vary from soft and smooth to rough and scratchy.

3. Breathability: Some fabrics are more breathable than others, allowing air to circulate through the material and helping to regulate body temperature.

4. Absorbency: Some fabrics are more absorbent than others, meaning they can absorb and retain moisture.

5. Stretch: Some fabrics have the ability to stretch, making them more comfortable to wear and allowing for a better fit.

6. Drapability: The way fabric drapes or hangs can vary depending on its weight, weave or knit structure, and the amount of stiffness or flexibility.

7. Colorfastness: The ability of a fabric to resist fading or running when exposed to water or light.

8. Resistance to wrinkles and creases: Some fabrics are more prone to wrinkling or creasing than others.

9. Ease of care: The ease of cleaning and maintaining the appearance of fabric can vary depending on the type of fiber and any finishing treatments applied.

There are mainly three types of fabric, which are in the below: Woven fabric, Knit or knitted fabric, Non-woven fabric

From the Manufacturers viewpoint,fabrics are classified according to the method of manufacture as: i) Woven a)Hand loom b) Power loom c) Khadi ii) Knitted a) Warp knit b) Weft knit iv)Embroidery v) Lace vi) Crochet, etc.
From the Technologists viewpoint, fabrics are classified as:i) Structure ii) Texture. From the Engineers viewpoint, fabrics are classifiedinto: i) Width/Breadth, ii) Length, iii) Yarn size, iv) Weight, v) Thickness,vi) Setting, vii) Face. From Standards viewpoint, fabrics are classified as i)Set, ii) Weight, iii) Strength, iv) Condition, v) Application or End use. Thereis the possibility of overlapping of fabric characteristics under thesedifferent viewpoints.

Method of manufacture as:

  1. Woven (a) Hand loom, (b) Power loom, (c) Khadi.
  2. Knitted (a) Hand knitted, (b) Machine knitted, (c) Wrap knits, (d) Weft knits.
  3. Embroidery (a) Hand embroidery, (b) Machine embroidery.
  4. Lace (a) Hand- made, (b) Machine- made.
  5. Braiding (a) Personal wear, (b) Industrial, (c) Oceanic.
  6. Crochet.
  7. Tatting.
  8. Knotting.
  9. Netting.
  10. Felting.
  11. No-weaving, etc.

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